James Crisp

Coding, calisthenics, book reviews, mind hacks and the occasional personal bit.

Month: November 2009

HTML to PDF Conversion Plugin For Rails (A fork of wicked pdf)

Once a business web application reaches a certain size, the need often arises to generate PDFs from HTML/CSS.

Up until recently, the story around this for a MRI Rails application was not good. You could either use tools like Prawn, which require a description of the layout in a specific DSL, or pay for a tool like Prince XML which can convert from HTML, but which costs quite a bit. Those using JRuby were in a stronger position as they could use the Java PDF library called Flying Saucer.

The good news is that PDF generation for MRI Ruby is now easy and free, thanks to webkit, the open source webkit wrapper called wkhtmltopdf and mileszs’s wickedpdf plugin. I was really excited to come across this plugin and started to use it right away. However, it had a couple of issues:

  • Temp file handling caused errors when two PDFs were being generated within the same second (eg, 2 requests at almost the same time)
  • Problems generating PDF were not reported

Galdomedia forked the code and updated it to use standard Ruby temp files. This was great for ruby 1.7, but not good for Ruby 1.6 which does not allow you to set the extension on temp files (wkhtmltopdf relies on having a .html extension).

As my production servers run Ruby 1.6, I needed a different approach. My fork uses streams rather than temporary files, and adds some basic error handling and basic integration tests.

To install in a rails app:

script/plugin install git://github.com/jcrisp/wicked_pdf.git

Or clone the code from GitHub.

Presentation Zen by Garr Reynolds

presentationzen.jpgAfter being impressed by Garr Reynolds speaking in Sydney a year or so ago, I’ve been keen to check out his Presentation Zen book. It is an enlightening read, especially if you have never studied art or graphics design. The book is a little over 200 pages long, with many illustrations and a impressive, clean layout (no surprise there!).

Near the start of the book, Garr talks about creativity requiring an open mind (child like) and a willingness to be wrong, and to experiment. He recommends exercising restraint, and focusing on simplicity, clarity and brevity. He starts presentations brainstorming using pen and paper, whiteboards or post-its rather than in front of the computer (personally I often use story cards as you can jot slide outlines on them, group, and shift the order around). He recommends grouping the ideas, and identifying the core message and sticking with that message throughout the whole presentation.

Garr highlights the importance of taking the time to slow down and really think about what to put in the presentation. He suggests that you keep two important questions in mind: “What’s your point?” (what one thing do you want the audience to remember), and “Why does it matter?” (put yourself in the audiences’ shoes). If bits of your content don’t aid in answering these questions, “when in doubt, cut it out”! Garr also suggests an “Elevator test” – can you make your pitch in 30-45 seconds? A structure that works well is starting with an introduction which explains the issue (the pain) and the core message. Then something like 3 parts that support your assertions or solve the pain (sounds a bit like Bosworth’s Solution Selling).

“Amplification through simplification” is central to Garr’s design approach. He advocates lots of empty space to highlight just one or a few important elements on a slide. “Simplicity can be obtained through the careful reduction of the non-essential” and decreasing the signal vs noise ratio of the slides. Garr is a big fan of using images on slides with just a few words. The aim is to make slides which have strong, memorable impact, and enhance the presenter’s spoken words. He also highlights the importance of having the audience know where to look. Eg, simplicity plus images leading the eye to the right spot (eg, people in images on the slide look towards the words on the slide). Garr is a big fan of using quotes to support his points.

Garr suggests a mix of symmetrical and asymmetrical slides. Symmetrical are more formal and static, where as asymmetrical slides are often more dynamic and interesting and activate empty space. He also suggests using a grid, such as the rule of thirds (2 horizontal and 2 vertical lines providing a grid of 9 equally sized boxes), with the main subject placed on one of the crossing points of the lines. Contrast (using colour, shape, space, etc) can be used to make an element stand out and helps the viewer “get” the point of the design quickly. Repetition can be used (eg, text on each slide in an image of a post-it) to provide a professional and unified look. Use proximity to group related objects.

Although Garr doesn’t talk about it explicity, his sample slides tend to make use of clever typography. Often lower case text, with most important part in a bigger font. A mix of colours and sizes and styles and sometimes rotations to add interest to the slides. Generally sans-serif fonts.

On presenting itself, Garr says you should be completely present – enthusiastic and completely focused on presentation that you are giving, lost in the moment. Nothing else. Although you may make mistakes, don’t dwell on them. Practice like mad to become confident and appear easy and natural for the presentation. However, remain flexible, aware and open to possibilities as they arise (being “in the moment”).

Near the end of the book, Garr says: “It’s not about us [the presenter], it’s about them. And about the message.”. He also suggests that shorter is better, leave the audience wanting more, not overloaded (as per Japanese proverb “eat until 80% full”). On delivery, Garr suggests standing front and centre, leaving the lights on and advancing slides with a remote.

Garr’s points are much more clearly illustrated using images in the book. I would recommend Presentation Zen to anyone who is interested in making more visually inspiring and interesting presentations.

Percent Number in Apache Rewrite Rules (mod_rewrite)

What do the %1 %2 in a Rewrite rule mean? The Apache guide does not help, nor does any other documentation I found. I came across the %1, %2 etc in some complex and arcane rules. Google ignores percent signs, which makes it hard to get an easy answer.

We’ll use the rules from my last post as an example.

RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\. [NC]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^([a-z.]+)$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ http://www.%1/$1 [R=301,L]

The %1 refers to the capture group in a previous RewriteCond. This differentiates it from the $1 which refers to a capture group in the current RewriteRule.

Hopefully I have littered this post with enough keywords that future googlers will find the answer to the %1 %2 in ReWrite rules more easily 🙂

Adding WWW to domains, and Apache Rewrite Rules (mod_rewrite)

Browse to http://google.com. Then look at the address bar. You’re not really at http://google.com. You’ve been redirected to http://www.google.com. Try the same on w3c, Facebook, Sydney Morning Herald etc.

Why WWW?
Why do all these sites redirect you to a www form? Well, the main reason is because it is advantageous to have a canonical URL, and, if your have to choose one URL, you might as well go with what people seem to expect, which is to include a ‘www’.

What’s so great about having one canonical URL?

  • Cookies: if your users can access the site at www.domain.com and domain.com, you can end up with some horrible cookie and session problems depending on the browser and web framework (behaviour is different between Firefox and IE). Stay tuned for another post with more details on this.
  • Certificates for HTTPS: certificates are usually for a single domain. If your site is available with and without ‘www’, your site will need a certificate for each or a multi-domain certificate (ie, more money and config).
  • Caching: if you have two URLS, any HTTP caching will only be half as effective
  • SEO: your page rank may be split between links to both possible URLs (though Google Webmaster tools seems to let you combine it)

How?
Right so, now you’re probably just hoping there is an easy way to implement this forced ‘www’ business! Well the good news is that it’s quite easy if you’re using Apache with mod_rewrite. I googled around to try and find some good rules, but the ones I found were tied to a single hard coded domain (no good for me where I have multiple domains pointing to the same server for different countries). See below for what I came up with. It seems to work quite well. You can put it in your virtual host configuration file or even .htaccess file.

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\. [NC]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^([a-z.]+)$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ http://www.%1/$1 [R=301,L]

Line 1: Are you coming to the site without www. at the start of the host? [NC] means ignore case.

Line 2: Does your domain comprise of letters and dots (this means that going to the IP address will not fire the rewrite rule). Grab the domain in a capture group.

Line 3: Rewrite the URL with a www at the front, and keep the hostname from the previous condition (%1) and the path after the domain ($1). Use a status code 301, to tell the client that this is a permanent redirect.

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